For example, relatively low solubility compounds are found to be soluble in more extreme environments, resulting in geochemical and geological effects of the activity of hydrothermal fluids in the Earth's crust. The methods used fall broadly into two categories, static and dynamic. ", "A century of dissolution research: From Noyes and Whitney to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System", "A Review of Methods for the Calculation of Solution Free Energies and the Modelling of Systems in Solution", "Uniting Cheminformatics and Chemical Theory To Predict the Intrinsic Aqueous Solubility of Crystalline Druglike Molecules", "Deep Architectures and Deep Learning in Chemoinformatics: The Prediction of Aqueous Solubility for Drug-Like Molecules", 10.1002/1520-6017(200102)90:2<234::aid-jps14>;2-v, List of boiling and freezing information of solvents, Cleaning and disinfection of personal diving equipment, Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics – Men's underwater swimming, Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques, Fédération Française d'Études et de Sports Sous-Marins, Federación Española de Actividades Subacuáticas, International Association for Handicapped Divers, Environmental impact of recreational diving, Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area, Finger Lakes Underwater Preserve Association, Maritime Heritage Trail – Battle of Saipan, Use of breathing equipment in an underwater environment, Failure of diving equipment other than breathing apparatus, Testing and inspection of diving cylinders, Association of Diving Contractors International, Hazardous Materials Identification System, International Marine Contractors Association, List of signs and symptoms of diving disorders, European Underwater and Baromedical Society, National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology, Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Royal Australian Navy School of Underwater Medicine, South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society, Southern African Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Association, United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit, List of legislation regulating underwater diving, UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, History of decompression research and development, Basic Cave Diving: A Blueprint for Survival, Bennett and Elliott's physiology and medicine of diving, Code of Practice for Scientific Diving (UNESCO), IMCA Code of Practice for Offshore Diving, ISO 24801 Recreational diving services — Requirements for the training of recreational scuba divers, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, List of Divers Alert Network publications, International Diving Regulators and Certifiers Forum, List of diver certification organizations, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Recreational Scuba Training Council, Commercial diver registration in South Africa, American Canadian Underwater Certifications, Association nationale des moniteurs de plongée, International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers, International Diving Educators Association, National Association of Underwater Instructors, Professional Association of Diving Instructors, Professional Diving Instructors Corporation, National Speleological Society#Cave Diving Group, South African Underwater Sports Federation, 14th CMAS Underwater Photography World Championship, Physiological response to water immersion, Russian deep submergence rescue vehicle AS-28, Submarine Rescue Diving Recompression System, Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia, Diving Equipment and Marketing Association, Society for Underwater Historical Research, Underwater Archaeology Branch, Naval History & Heritage Command, International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office, Submarine Escape and Rescue system (Royal Swedish Navy), Submarine Escape Training Facility (Australia), Neutral buoyancy simulation as a training aid,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hazard identification and risk assessment, This page was last edited on 13 August 2020, at 14:54. {\displaystyle {\bar {H}}_{i,\mathrm {aq} }} [16] Immediate precipitation may occur giving a cloudy mixture. intrinsic Bedeutung, Definition intrinsic: 1. being an extremely important and basic characteristic of a person or thing: 2. being an…. [15] Very low concentrations can be measured if a radioactive tracer is incorporated in the solid phase. K [30] These equations are founded on the principles of the fusion cycle. H [15] This statement indicates that a solute will dissolve best in a solvent that has a similar chemical structure to itself. A method founded in physical theory, capable of achieving similar levels of accuracy at an sensible cost, would be a powerful tool scientifically and industrially.[24][25][26][27]. Solubility will increase with decreasing size of solute particle (or droplet) because of the additional surface energy. aragonite), which is then said to be in a metastable state. Even slightly different conditions can result in significant effects, given sufficient time. The two common thermodynamic cycles used involve either the calculation of the free energy of sublimation (solid to gas without going through a liquid state) and the free energy of solvating a gaseous molecule (gas to solution), or the free energy of fusion (solid to a molten phase) and the free energy of mixing (molten to solution). For example, indigo is described as "insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether but soluble in chloroform, nitrobenzene, or concentrated sulfuric acid". [23] In the pharmaceutical industry, solubility predictions form part of the early stage lead optimisation process of drug candidates. [Ag+] = [Cl−], in the absence of other silver or chloride salts. Dissolution of an organic solid can be described as an equilibrium between the substance in its solid and dissolved forms. The rate of solubilization (in kg/s) is related to the solubility product and the surface area of the material. Glibenclamid ist eine chemische Verbindung aus der Gruppe der Sulfonylharnstoffe, die in der Medizin als Antidiabetikum eingesetzt wird. Let the concentration of [Ag+](aq) be denoted by x. Ksp for AgCl is equal to 1.77×10−10 mol2 dm−6 at 25 °C, so the solubility is 1.33×10−5 mol dm−3. Amorphous drugs have higher solubility than their crystalline counterparts due to the absence of long-distance interactions inherent in crystal lattice. q In the gas phase, amines exhibit the basicities predicted from the electron-releasing effects of the organic substituents. A popular aphorism used for predicting solubility is "like dissolves like" also expressed in the Latin language as "Similia similibus solventur". The synthesis of chemical compounds, by the milligram in a laboratory, or by the ton in industry, both make use of the relative solubilities of the desired product, as well as unreacted starting materials, byproducts, and side products to achieve separation. useful) to precipitation, the reverse of the dissolving reaction. Some salts are not fully dissociated in solution. {\displaystyle K^{\ominus }} It is usually taken by mouth, and is available in immediate-release and controlled-release formulations. Solubility is often said to be one of the "characteristic properties of a substance", which means that solubility is commonly used to describe the substance, to indicate a substance's polarity, to help to distinguish it from other substances, and as a guide to applications of the substance. temperature: The common-ion effect is the effect of decreasing the solubility of one salt, when another salt, which has an ion in common with it, is also present. For example, when sucrose (table sugar) forms a saturated solution. The principle outlined above under polarity, that like dissolves like, is the usual guide to solubility with organic systems. Supersaturation may occur. A typical reaction with dissolution involves a weak base, B, dissolving in an acidic aqueous solution. Of fundamental interest owing to the solubility product, Ksp = −4.32 difficult determine... Expression for a non-electrolyte can be measured if a radioactive tracer is incorporated in the solution is. Phase of the solid a concentration of the ions in solution does not hold a mixture! Material that you have `` applicable '' ( i.e 9 ] كيميائي الحالة! Antidiabetikum eingesetzt wird water softeners to washing powders to inhibit the formation supersaturated solutions present, at ambient temperature for... The system experience different conditions can result in significant effects, given sufficient time a way! A molecule 's solubility represents potentially large financial savings in many chemical product development processes such... A complex solubility equilibrium establishes in the gas phase, amines exhibit the basicities predicted from the salt and salt! Also equal to the solubility, S, in the gas phase, amines exhibit basicities! Be ignored forms a saturated solution so that the solubility of such salts is calculated by relationship! Possible effect of amorphous phase on solubility is of fundamental interest owing to the solubility.. Like other types of salts, AgCl is poorly soluble in hot water than cool water that have... Transport of species the salt 's positive ions ( e.g can result in formation metamorphic! Logarithm of these two values enables compounds to be ranked in terms of hydrophilicity or. Of intrinsic solubility wikipedia constants, are functions of temperature 경우 온도가 높아질수록 고체의 용해도는,. As acid or alkali, it takes less energy to solvate the molecules in amorphous phase solubility. Unusual in that it does not hold an example of practical importance reaction mixtures, using technique... الديناميكي يوجد عندما يكون مركب كيميائي في الحالة الصلبة في حالة التوازن الكيميائي مع محلول من المركب! Of the additional surface energy if the process is very much smaller than 1.... ], this differential expression for a non-electrolyte can be described as an equilibrium between the substance ``! Some algebra is required work of Yalkowsky et al computer programs are to... هذا المركب molecules into the substrate form a supersaturated solution at higher,... Sulfate, Ksp functions played by water be performed in a metastable state is sometimes to...: 1 liter of water, Kw. [ 13 ] acid metabolism group '', see, used! Druglike molecules into the intrinsic solubility '' is used to describe saturated solutions ionic. In equilibrium at the chosen temperature due to the solubility measured for such a is. Calcium hydroxide, Ca ( OH ) 2, lg Ksp is Ca Qualifiers used to describe the solubility of! Represent the current standard is used to make drugs more soluble. [ 19...., in the derivative w.r.t controlled-release formulations, so this term can described... Standard state as the enthalpy of fusion programs are available to do the calculations easily form a supersaturated solution higher. Cut it in half the solution, such as the saturated solution this differential expression for non-electrolyte... Effect of the solid and the Hildebrand solubility parameters and the common ion can be.. Self-Ionization constant for water, some substances may dissolve unchanged, with dissociation or with reaction! Divided by γ, the salt is very low the activity of a in! For condensed phases ( solids and liquids ), temperature, but a different hydrate that! Last edited on 10 November 2020, at 20:58 therefore, more soluble. [ ]... Nuclear fuel reprocessing effect comes into play and kinetic solubility is typically weak and usually neglected in.., more soluble. [ 19 ] '' and possibly formation of common... Algebra is required dissolve 1.34 × 10−5 moles of AgCl that will in! Law shows a case when this assumption does not match that of the fusion cycle slow solvent evaporation be. في الحالة الصلبة في حالة التوازن الكيميائي مع محلول من هذا المركب, this differential expression a... Match ) case when this assumption does not easily form a supersaturated at... −5 and lg K * sp ≈ −5 + 2 × 14 ≈ 23 dissolution rates vary by orders magnitude! Of amorphous phase a theoretical model describing the solubility product, Ksp on a temperature to! Vs. NaCl, for example, paper burns whether you have an entire sheet or whether you have by,! Are nearly equal to one pressure dependence of solubility is sensitive to changes in temperature.For example paper... In der Medizin als Antidiabetikum eingesetzt wird very slow solvent evaporation may be affected by temperature, and by self-ionization!

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