Jeremy Bentham identified good consequences with pleasure, which is measured in terms of intensity, duration, certainty, propinquity, fecundity, purity, and extent. Utilitarianism seems to require punishing the innocent in certain circumstances, such as these. Natural Law Vs Utilitarianism. This chapter considers a little more closely the detail of his attack as it appears in the essay on Anarchical Fallacies which is the most elaborate expression of his view. The chapter also discusses John Stuart Mill's attempts to furnish individual rights with a utilitarian foundation. Utilitarianism vs. Natural Rights The utilitarians declare, from their study of the consequences of liberty as opposed to alternative systems, that liberty will lead more surely to widely approved goals: harmony, peace, prosperity, etc. This act of violence is morally permissible and can be proven through natural law theory and utilitarianism. It is wrong to punish an innocent person, because it violates his rights and is unjust. Natural law ethics claims that our basic moral duty (the basic ethical desideratum) is to act in accordance with our nature so as to promote the thriving or flourishing of *people *(as opposed to some abstract quality, as in utilitarianism). Natural law holds the view that law should reflect moral reasoning and should be based on moral order, whereas legal positivism holds that there is no connection between law and moral order. Natural law ethics is correct about this. Key Difference – Natural Law vs Legal Positivism Natural law and legal positivism are two schools of thought that have opposing views on the connection between law and morals. It started back in 1993 with several bombings throughout the years on U.S. military bases killing hundreds and injuring thousands. Natural and Divine Law When examining the ideas and relations of divine and natural law many variables must be taken into consideration. Social norms, evolution, and religion must all be taken into account. This is a mistake. Aquinas distinguishes four types of law—human, divine, eternal, and natural—as follows: Human law—“an ordinance of reason for the common good promulgated by him who has the care of the community.” Eternal law —God’s plan for all of creation. Bentham's successful attacks on the doctrine of natural rights endured throughout the 19th century. Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism, which advocates that those actions are right which bring about the most good overall. Natural law—The part of eternal law that applies to human beings; it is God’s plan for us. For us and relations of Divine and natural law theory and utilitarianism ; it is wrong to punish an person... 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